The Common Closure Principle (CCP) states: ”The classes in a component should be closed together against the same kind of changes. A change that affects a component affects all the classes in that component and no other components.”
To put it in other words, a component should not have multiple reasons to change. This is the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) from SOLID restated for components.
The goal of CCP is to increase maintainability. If a change to requirements always triggers changes in a lot of the components it will be harder to make the change, each change will lead to a lot of re-validation and redeploying, and parallelizing different changes will be harder.
You would prefer the changes to occur in one component only.
As with SRP, full closure is not possible. There will always be changes that requires multiple components to be changed. The aim should be to be strategic and place classes that we, from experience, know often changes together into the same component.
The classes don’t have to be physically connected (i.e. are connected through code) but can also be conceptually connected.
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